[NAME]
ALL.dao.control.if-else

[TITLE]
If-Else Conditional Control

[DESCRIPTION]

The if-else control allows the program to branch and execute different blocks of codes, 
based on the results of the condition expressions.

 0.1   Definition  

     
   1  ControlBlock ::= Statement | '{' [ StatementBlock ] '}'
   2  
   3  IfElseStmt ::= 'if' '(' [ LocalVarDeclaration ';' ] Expression ')' ControlBlock
   4                 { 'else' 'if' '(' [ LocalVarDeclaration ';' ] Expression  ')' ControlBlock }
   5                 [ 'else' ControlBlock ]
     


 0.2   Use Cases  


 0.2.1   Single Statement  

This is the simplest use case of if. It generally looks like the following: 
     
   1  if( condition ) statement
     
Where the statement is executed only if the condition evaluated to true (non-zero number 
or enum value).

 0.2.2   Single Block   

If multiple statements need to be executed if the if test is true, a pair of braces can b
e used to group these statements into a block. Of course, such block can also nest other 
blocks. 
     
   1  if( condition ) {
   2      block
   3  }
     


 0.2.3   Else Statement or Block  

If there is another statement or block should be executed when the condition test failed,
one can add the else clause to the if statement. 
     
   1  if( condition )
   2      statement1
   3  else
   4      statement2
   5  
   6  if( condition ) {
   7      block1
   8  } else {
   9      block2
  10  }
     
Please note that, the braces are needed only if the block constains more than a single st
atement.

 0.2.4   Multiple Conditions and Blocks  

If there are multiple conditions to be tested for multiple statements or blocks, the else
 if clause can be used. 
     
   1  if( condition1 ){
   2     block1;
   3  }else if( condition2 ){
   4     block2;
   5  }else{
   6     block3;
   7  }
     

If condition1 is true, block1 is executed; otherwise, if condition2 is true, block2 is ex
ecuted; otherwise, block3 is executed; zero or more else if and zero or one else statemen
t can be used.

 0.2.5   Optional Declaration  

Before each condition expression, there can be an optional variable declaration. 
     
   1  if( declaration; condition ) {
   2      block
   3  }
     

For example, 
     
   1  if( rnd = rand(100); rnd > 50 ) io.writeln( "random number is >50" );
   2  if( var rnd = rand(100); rnd > 50 ) io.writeln( "random number is >50" );
     


 0.3   More Examples  


     
   1  a = 5
   2  if( a > 1 ) io.writeln( 'a > 1' )
   3  
   4  if( a > 2 )
   5      io.writeln( 'a > 2' )
   6  else
   7      io.writeln( 'a <= 2' )
   8  
   9  if( a < 3 )
  10      io.writeln( 'a < 3' )
  11  else if( a < 4 )
  12      io.writeln( 'a < 4' )
  13  else
  14      io.writeln( 'a >= 4' )